# Physics

###### UNDERSTANDING DARK MATTER AS PSEUDO NEUTRINO “VACUUM” BETTER

Without giving a definition first, some impressions of what is a pseudo ‘vacuum’ consisting of pseudo vector electron neutrinos or in short pseudo e-neutrinos: The energy of a cell of pseudo e-neutrino is 1.34 eV, very small compared to the electron mass of 0.511 MeV. Then it gives an uncertainty length of one micro meter compared to 0.1 nano meter of the H atom. Therefore it seems ideal for mediation between a proton and an electron, the basic H atom. The mediating ‘vacuum’ can be defined as dark matter of low energy. Since this mediating dark matter consists of one kind of pseudo neutrino’s it is quantized but the quant of the pseudo e-neutrino does not carry electric charge. Compared to the observed c-neutrino at the speed of light of 1.233 eV, the vector cell of the pseudo e-neutrino determines that the c-state has to decay into cells because the binding energy of the c-state is less.

Now the question can be posed, how do these pseudo vector cells behave as carriers of dark matter and what are their properties because a single pseudo neutrino cell cannot be observed? Further in present-day universe what about the other two observed c-states of neutrinos, the muon and tau-state or in short µ- and τ-neutrino state? The last question is relative simple to answer. The τ- pseudo neutrino generates the strong interaction force in the quark complexes and together in a mixed state the weak force is carried by the pseudo µ-neutrinos. For example the electron consists internally of two µ-pseudo cells in resonance to each other as two different independent cells while the µ-lepton is a combination of τ- and µ-cells.

###### The origin of the pseudo vector cell for neutrinos

In the accompanying figure one sees the picture of one of the most fundamental experiments in physics given in the 1st year at college of the university in Delft, copied from the lecture note for physics in 1965, still a stencilled ink copy.

Three vectors each of different nature, force of gravity, angular momentum vector and the precession vector, all perpendicular to each other giving the maximum precession, here a continuous precession because the gravity force is static and no friction losses.

A pseudo vector cell for the neutrinos is defined exactly according to this experiment. Only the three vectors are quantized having equal components. The cell is kinematic always changing in time. So a point of the cell in spatial space displaces. Also the cell has in first instance a double rotation, one for the spin and the other for precession due to the acceleration component vector and it maintains cubic symmetry between the three components of the vectors of a cell. Further a cell is self consistent and conserved giving the three kinds of vector cells i.e. e-, µ-, and τ-cells. So the kinematic cell becomes dynamic if its energy is conserved.

Compared to the normal vector definition representing only one property in 3D space, such as electric field or magnetic field or a velocity filed, the pseudo vector cells cannot be defined as a field then describing the property direction and magnitude in each point. The pseudo vector cells as a approximation of field consists of numerous billions and billions cells interacting to each other. The H atom exchanges about 3.8 * 10^5 cells between proton and electron at zero energy.

Having always excepted that vectors according to coordinate systems, one clock wise the other anti clock wise, follow the commutation law between them, the pseudo vector cells do not comply to this rule. These consist of four independent cells for the two coordinate systems given in fig 2.

There are two cells devoted to the anti matter and two to normal matter. But the question is which combinations. The pairing definition for the four independent cells is complex and has to cope to different situations between the two matters. Next to the observed matter and anti matter symmetries Further contemplation of fig 2 determines dark matter or pseudo vector cells annihilate each other without the existence of charged matter, nucleons and electrons and vice versa for the anti matter atoms. So as a supposition it seems consistent that these pseudo cells also have to exist internally in charged matter. With this assumption a quark model based on these three kind of pseudo cells, e-, µ- and τ-cells giving twelve combinations, was derived. The e-pseudo vector cells are explicitly existing beyond the charged matter forming the external pseudo ‘vacuum’ or dark matter while µ- and τ- cells are reserved for interior of the particles.

Note the overall number of combinations are worked out in BK 1 chap 3, par 1 and 2 which are 12^12 (exponent 12) combinations.

The degenerated matter in black holes is composed of the from the four independent cells in fig 2, mainly τ-pseudo cells in alternation. A black hole is the alternation between conjugated and normal coherent matter preventing the collapse of the pseudo cells themselves. It determines two event horizons by electric neutrality one internal and the other external facing our Newtonian space of three dimensions BK 2.

Another situation is the condition known in particle physics as spontaneous vacuum break down. In the theory here it points to pseudo cells contracted to their shortest uncertainty dimension which is a quark conglomerate of τ-pseudo resonances.